All winter long we anticipate the warmer weather, chirpier birds, and blooming flowers. But for one in four Americans, spring also heralds seasonal allergies, an immune system response that turns sufferers into congested, itchy sneeze machines. And even though most of us are staying inside during the coronavirus pandemic, that doesn’t mean spring allergy season is cancelled. Read on for effective allergy treatments that promise to prevent or lessen your reaction to the allergen onslaught.

When does pollen appear?

Allergens are present all year round — in the spring, it’s all about tree pollen (which hits the South and South-Atlantic states the hardest), while summer brings grass pollen, and fall is for weed pollen, said a spokesman for the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA). “What matters is each person’s individual allergies. Typically, people have allergies to three or four species of trees and plants. So even if pollen counts are high, it doesn’t mean your allergies are worse. That’s why diagnosis is such an important part of allergy care.”

The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America recommends consulting an allergist to kick off treatment. “A lot of people are self-diagnosing and self-treating, but they might guess wrong. You may think spring is to blame, but it may be dust or mold or your cat. Allergies are a tailor-made disease for each person.”

1. Take allergy medicine early

If you have seasonal allergies, start taking your preferred medication (nasal antihistamines/steroids, oral antihistamines, or eye drops) two weeks before symptoms are likely to set in, says Clifford W. Bassett, M.D., Medical Director of Allergy and Asthma Care of New York and AAFA ambassador. Once your nasal or airway passages are inflamed, it reduces the chances that medication will work. “If you take the right meds before symptoms are severe, they’ll work better,” he says.

If your main complaints are nasal congestion, sneezing, and a runny nose, opt for a nasal spray, like azelastine (Astelin), says Dr. Bassett. (However, he cautions patients to stop using nasal decongestant sprays after five days, since the spray irritates the lining of the nose and can exacerbate symptoms, causing a rebound runny nose.)

If allergies typically make you feel itchy, an option is non-sedating oral antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) or fexofenadine (Allegra). And if your allergies make it hard to sleep, take Benadryl or Chlor-Trimeton, which are 100% sedation antihistamines.

2. Limit pollen exposure

Every little bit helps when the air is hazy with pollen. Wear sunglasses and a brimmed hat, keep the windows closed at home, and avoid the outdoors at midday to afternoon when pollen levels are at their highest, says Dr. Bassett.

And when you come home, try to de-pollen yourself as thoroughly as possible. Change your outdoor clothing before going in the bedroom, and shower and wash your hair before turning in for the night.

3. Try natural remedies…

Not a fan of conventional medication? Naturopathic doctor Doni Wilson, CNS, CPM, a former board member of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP), recommends patients take natural supplements like nettles and a plant pigment called quercetin to relieve allergy-induced runny nose, watery eyes, hives, and swelling. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, quercetin acts as an antihistamine and an anti-inflammatory, and in test tubes, it “prevents immune cells from releasing histamines, chemicals that cause allergic reactions.”

Another strategy: vitamin C. “Even something as simple as vitamin C can help,” says Dr. Wilson. “It’s a natural antihistamine, but it’s very gentle — you need to take 500-1000 mg., three times a day to reduce symptoms.”

Dr. Bassett opts for cayenne pepper and green tea to reduce allergic reaction without OTC medication. “Spices such as cayenne and chili pepper contain capsaicin which helps reduce nasal congestion and stuffiness,” he says. If you suffer from cedar pollen allergies, drinking a green tea called “Benifuuki” might be your best bet. A double-blind study in Japan found that “symptoms such as nose blowing and eye itching were significantly relieved in the Benifuuki group compared with the placebo group.”

4. …or homeopathy

For people who subscribe to homeopathy, a system of medicine based on the principle of treating “like with like”, Dr. Wilson, a longtime allergy sufferer who gets groggy on OTC medications, says a product called Triple Allergy Defense (pictured, available on Amazon.com, $24.95) works for her. With a dosage of 20 drops, one to three times a day, Triple Defense purports to reduce the duration and severity of allergy symptoms related to pollen, mold and dust. “The results are pretty immediate — you can tell within minutes that it’s helping,” she says.

5. Rinse your nasal passages regularly

Every expert we spoke with advocates rinsing your nasal passages daily during pollen season. Dr. Wilson believes nasal irrigation is especially important for people who are constantly headachy and stuffy. “Rinsing with a salt water solution decreases inflammation in the sinuses,” she says. How does a saline rinse work? “Nasal saline can dilute and rinse away pollen and molds that have traveled to your nasal passages,” says Dr. Bassett.

One of the most popular tools for rinsing nasal passages is a nasal irrigation pot, or neti pot, which allows you to pour liquid into one nostril so that it flows through your passages and out the other nostril. For beginners, the process can be slightly clumsy — find detailed neti pot directions and safety guidelines on the FDA website.

6. Balance your hormones and reduce stress

In keeping with her holistic health strategy, Dr. Wilson believes you have to address underlying issues that may be exacerbating your allergic reactions. If you’ve battled hormone imbalance, chronic stress, or food sensitivities, addressing them could alleviate your allergy woes.

“When we’re stressed, we’re more likely to have allergic responses,” she says. “Research shows that when our cortisol levels are imbalanced, it affects the immune system. The more we can help them reduce stress (through yoga, meditation, getting enough sleep), we can decrease the likelihood of having allergic responses to the environment.”

A study published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) supports stress-reduction therapy — it found that allergy sufferers with persistent stress experience more allergy flares.

7. Commit to a healthy diet and exercise

Another backdoor allergy attack strategy: priming your body with a healthy lifestyle, including adequate exercise and a nutrient-rich diet. “An allergic disorder means you have a chronic disease of your immune system,” says the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. “Exercise can bolster your immune system, which means it can be a helpful strategy when you’re fighting your allergies. Immunotherapy [like allergy shots] increase your tolerance to a trigger, but your body will still produce antibodies to those allergens.” But if your body is in top condition, you can put up with more of the trigger before reacting.

8. Give your home a thorough spring cleaning

Think allergies are just an outdoor thing? Not so. If you ever open your windows and doors, keep your shoes on in the house, or don’t strip down your clothes when you come inside, there is pollen in your home.

Aside from pollen, people are also allergic to dust mites and mold. To reduce indoor allergen exposure, keep pets off the bed (dust mites are attracted to pet dander), vacuum often, set air conditioners to “recirculate,” keep the windows closed, and check for moisture, if you have a mold allergy.

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